小说阅读知识清单

作者: 来源: 发布时间:2017年11月29日 点击数:

小说阅读的知识清单  姓名       

一、赏析小说的人物形象

1、形象刻画基本技巧——各种描写手法的运用与作用

⑴正面描写:肖像描写、语言描写、行动描写、细节描写、心理描写等。(注意概括介绍)

A、肖像、神态、动作描写:更好展现人物的内心世界及性格特征。

B、语言描写:①刻画人物性格,反映人物心理活动,促进故事情节的发展。②描摹人物的语态,使形象刻画栩栩如生、跃然纸上。

C、心理描写:直接表现人物思想和内在情感(矛盾/焦虑/担心/喜悦/兴奋等),表现人物思想品质,刻画人物性格,推动情节发展。

 

⑵侧面描写:侧面烘托、环境描写(自然环境和社会环境)

 

⑶细节描写:更细腻地展示人物某一特征。

 

2.常见题型: 

⑴分析小说刻画人物的方法与技巧;

⑵概括人物的性格特征;

⑶评价小说中的人物(包括作者自身对人物的态度和读者对人物的评价)。

 

3.“人物性格特征分析题解题思路

⑴从故事情节的发展变化中把握人物性格。⑵从人物之间的矛盾冲突中认识人物性格。⑶从描写手法中认识人物性格。⑷从社会环境、活动场景及人物关系中认识人物的典型意义。⑸借助作者对人物的介绍和评价把握人物基本特征。

 

4.人物形象分析题表述要点:是一个怎样的人+ 性格、品质特征+ 形象的意义(定性+定量) 

小说鉴赏人物形象常用术语:(1)勤劳,朴实(淳朴),善良,真诚,守信,爱国,执著,乐观,豁达、勇敢,坚韧,顽强,倔强,自信,正直,仁厚,安分守己,温顺,节俭,聪明,机智,精明,干练,伶俐,踏实,谨慎,细腻,吃苦耐劳,有生活情趣,有平常心,有文化,有理想,有担当,有责任心,有上进心,有主见,有魄力,通情达理,技艺高超,讲究信誉,从容淡定,胸怀宽广,经验丰富,热心体贴,善解人意,乐于助人,大而无私,无私奉献,乐观开朗,自尊心强,刻苦勤奋,粗犷豪迈;(2)狡猾,自私,自卑,自傲,虚伪,粗鲁,冷漠,暴躁,贪婪,泼辣,卑鄙,无耻,圆滑,世故,敏感,逆来顺受,卑劣吝啬,忍辱苟安,委曲求全,谨慎多虑,自主意识薄弱,趋炎附势,见风使舵,阿谀奉承,善于逢迎,伶牙俐齿,阴险狡诈,斤斤计较,心胸狭窄,爱慕虚荣,损人利己。      

5、如何判断谁是主人公?

①主人公应贯穿小说情节的始终。   ②主人公的表现及其性格决定小说的主题。

6.各类形象的作用

(1)主要人物形象的作用:主要是分析人物形象的社会意义。

(2)次要人物形象的作用:①为主要人物服务,对主要人物起衬托作用;②揭示或凸显主旨;③若是线索人物,则自然是贯串全文的线索。④、次要人物本身的意义 ,、推动情节发展、暗示或交代社会环境。

 

人物形象分析题例题摘抄或粘贴

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                     

                                                                                   

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                    

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                   

 

 

 

 (3)物象的作用:基本作用不外乎突出人物性格,揭示、深化主题等。有时反复出现,串起相关情节,从而成为文章的线索,兼有使结构更加严谨的作用。

1)对文章结构具体的思考角度:开头结尾的策划;详略主次的安排;行文线索的贯穿;过渡照应的勾连;伏笔悬念的设置。

2)内容上结合文章具体分析。

附:思考角度:A、勾连上下文的线索作用;B、对内容的充实作用;C、主旨的深化升华作用;D、寄托作者的思想感情。                                     

 

物象作用分析题例题摘抄或粘贴

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                   

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                   

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                   

 

 

二、赏析小说情节安排

1.小说的情节结构:序幕、开端、发展、高潮、结局、尾声。

 

2.情节安排的基本手法

{C}{C}、各种叙述手法的运用与作用(叙事方式)

⑴顺叙:⑵倒叙:⑶插叙:⑷补叙:⑸平叙:方式有二:①花开两朵,各表一枝:先说甲的事,再说乙的事,两边都交待清楚;②时而说甲,时而说乙,按照情节发展轮番叙述。

{C}{C}、情节安排的结构技法

{C}{C}、起伏波折(摇摆){C}{C}、伏笔照应 {C}{C}、铺垫蓄势④、突转⑤、悬念⑥、巧合等

 

3. 常见题型:最常见的是概括故事情节。

①用一句话或简明的语句概括故事情节;  ②文中共写了哪几件事,请依次加以概括;

③概括小说某一环节的内容(包括指出开端、发展、高潮和结局四部分中的某一方面)。

 

4.概括故事情节的方法思路

⑴完整叙述。 按照“何时何地何人做何事”的格式加以概括,应有的要素不能丢失。“何事”一环中有时要包括“原因、经过、结果”。

⑵从主人公的角度叙述。 故事较复杂,关涉到的人物较多时,要避免前后情节的相互交错。注意把握住事件涉及的对象,从同一角度概述,做到前后贯通。

 

5.情节的特点(情节安排评价)

1)全文情节一波三折。引人入胜,扣人心弦,增强故事的戏剧性、可读性。

2)小说情节首尾呼应。使情节完整,结构严谨。

3)开头运用倒叙,设置悬念,吸引读者,引人入胜。如《羚羊木雕》。

4)结尾戛然而止,留下空白式,给读者留下广阔的想象空间,或引人深思。

5)结尾出人意料,情节逆转(又俗称为·亨利式结尾),深化主题。

6)此外悲剧、喜剧式、讽刺幽默等。

7)贯穿情节的线索,可作线索的有:事、物、人、情、时间、空间。如《故乡》中的等。有时有双线结构,即明暗线,如《爸爸的花儿落了》。

6.情节运行一般有如下几种方式:(1)、遵循基本模式,发生——发展——高潮——结局。

2)、摇摆。即通常所说的“一波三折”。(3)、意料之外,情理之中(·亨利式结尾)。

 

7.传统小说通常以时空为本位的线性结构模式。而现代小说在结构上赋予小说更多的变化,主要有三种常见结构模式:(1)、是延迟式结构。作者竭力给故事、人物、心理的紧张设置障碍,又不使读者觉得希望完全破灭,在这种捉迷藏式的游戏中,一环扣一环,实现小说的结构张力。(2)、是生活的横断面。将时空浓缩到一个小小的点上,在精巧的结构中展开漫长的时间和立体的无限空间。(3)、是按照心理时序而展开的意识流结构。它打破了时间这一恒常的维度,让人物的意识在超时间的空间里任意往来。

 

8.探究小说情节安排是否合理

首先,从情节上看;其次,从人物形象塑造上看;再次,从文章主题表达上看等。

 

9.情节的作用

⑴对整个故事情节的构成上的作用:一般来说是线索或推动情节发展;设置悬念,引起读者阅读的兴趣;使整篇小说情节波澜起伏;照应前文XX情节;为后面的XX情节发展作铺垫或埋下伏笔;

⑵对整个故事情节人物塑造的作用:或刻画了人物XX更加鲜明的性格;或表现了XX的人物性格;交代人物活动的环境;

3)对表现主题的作用:其作用一般来说是点题或突出主题、升华主题。

 

情节分析类例题摘抄或粘贴:

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

三、赏析小说的环境描写

1.环境包括社会环境和自然环境。在分析人物形象时通常要结合环境进行分析。

2、环境的作用:

①交代故事发生的时间地点;②渲染气氛,烘托人物的情感和思想;③奠定情感基调;④暗示社会环境,揭示社会本质特征或展示世态风情;⑤暗示人物的前途命运;⑥推动情节的发展或作为情节线索;⑦为刻画人物作铺垫,埋伏笔等(展开情节、转换情节、暗示情节的结束等);{C}{C}揭示人物心境,表现人物身份、地位、性格;{C}{C}揭示或深化主旨

3.环境类试题答题思路

1)表述要点: ①环境本身(交代……时间,交代……背景,营造……氛围,渲染……气氛)② (推动,暗示,铺垫)情节③ (烘托,衬托)....人物④ (表达,寄托,暗示,揭示)....主题。

2)、表述格式:×××具体描写了……景色,营造(创设)了一种……氛围;渲染.....气氛(定下)了……的抒情基调;烘托了人物的思想感情;为下文……情节展开作了铺垫,推动……的情节发展。

 

环境描写分析类例题摘抄或粘贴:

                                                                                   

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

四、赏析把握小说主题

1.主题是小说的灵魂。

2.常见题型:⑴找出体现小说主题的句子(或用自己的话概括作品的主题);

⑵读了全文后,文章让你明白了什么道理(本文对你有何启迪?谈谈你的体会);

⑶结合全文主题,谈谈你对某一句话(某一个问题)的理解或看法。

 

3.小说主题分析概括题解题思路

⑴从小说的情节和人物形象入手。

⑵从作品所反映的时代特征与典型环境上把握主题。

 联系作品的时代背景及典型的环境描写,认识人物形象的思想性格中所打上的时代烙印,把握住人物形象所折射出的时代特征,从而达到揭示小说主题的目的。

⑶从小说的精巧构思中把握作品的主题。

 

4.主题的常见表现形式:①以小说主要人物的性格特点、道德风貌、品格等揭示人性中的真善美和假丑恶。②用故事的形式针砭时弊。③通过寓言,寄寓人生哲理。④虚构生活经历,反映人物生存状态和心理状态。

 

主题分析类例题摘抄或粘贴:

                                                                                    

                                                                                   

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                   

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                    

五、鉴赏小说艺术特色

(1)鉴赏一:题目

解题思路:⑴通过联系、分析小说的主要情节、主要人物、主要内容来理解标题含义。

 

⑵常见作用:①起线索作用,贯穿全文;②暗示或点明小说主题。③象征某种精神品质。

拟题类型:以主要内容或主要事件拟题;以贯穿全文的线索拟题;以有象征意义又暗含中心的的实物为题;以主要人物为题;以特定环境为题。

 

小说标题的作用:1.设置了悬念,吸引读者阅读兴趣。2.标题就是小说的线索,贯穿全文,使文章结构更加严谨。3.为塑造和突出人物形象服务。4.推动情节的发展或推动了故事情节的转折,化解了人物矛盾冲突。5.突出主题,运用一定的手法(如比喻、象征等),一语双关,对主题的表现起画龙点睛的作用。

 

方法小结:理解小说标题的内涵及作用题目要注意从以下几个方面解题:

(1)思维模式:①标题是否交代时间、地点、环境;②标题是否设置悬念,吸引读者。

③标题是否是小说的线索;④标题是否为塑造和突出人物形象服务;⑤标题是否推动了情节的发展或推动了故事情节的转折;⑥标题是否一语双关,是否对主题的表现起画龙点睛的作用。

 

理解标题内涵:答题模板:一是具体的意思(文中具体的××,即表层含义);二是与主题表达、形象特征相关的深层意思(即深层含义)。

标题作用分析类例题摘抄或粘贴:

                                                                                   

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

(2)鉴赏二:鉴赏小说的表达技巧(略讲)

(一)常见题型:

1.文中运用什么表现手法塑造形象?有何作用?

 细节描写、正侧结合、对比、衬托、抑扬、铺垫、伏笔、照应、悬念、巧合、象征等

2.文中特有的表达方式是如何为表情达意服务的?   记叙、描写、说明、议论、抒情

3.小说语言运用上有何特点?给读者提供哪些艺术审美情趣?

 语言精炼、句式整齐而有节奏感、用词准确而形象、词语丰富而多样

 

(3)鉴赏三:小说的常用开头及作用

1.设疑法(悬念法):开头提出疑问,然后在行文过程中或结尾才回答疑问。作用是:①造成悬念,引出下文情节;②引起读者的思考,吸引读者阅读; ③突出人物形象;④揭示或暗示小说的主题。

 

2.写景法渲染环境氛围,交代主人公活动背景,烘托人物性格。暗示小说主人公的命运。

 

开头作用分析类例题摘抄或粘贴:

                                                                                   

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

(4)鉴赏四:小说的常用结局及效果

结尾的基本特点和作用①首尾呼应;照应前文(标题);丰富人物形象特征,揭示或深化主旨;引人深思发人深省,出人意料又在情理之中等。注意与前文、与任务、与主旨等的关系。

 

1.出人意料的结局。 ①从结构上看,它使平淡的故事情节陡然生出波澜,如石破天惊,猛烈撞击读者的心灵,产生震撼人心的力量。②从表现手法上看,与前文的伏笔相照应,使人觉得又在情理之中。③从主题上看,能更好地深化主题。

2.令人伤感的悲剧结局。①从表现人物性格看,能更好地塑造人物性格。②这种结局令人感动,令人回味,引人思考。③从主题上看,能更好地深化主题。

3.令人喜悦的大团圆结局。①从表达效果看,小说喜剧结局给读者留下了广阔的想象空间,耐人寻味。②从情感体验看,喜剧性的结尾与主人公、作者的意愿构成和谐的一体,给人以欣慰、愉悦之感。③从主题上看,这样的结局凸显出人性的真善美超越战胜了假丑恶,反映出人类对和平美好幸福美满生活的向往。

4.戛然而止结局。留下了“空白”(广阔的想象空间)给读者想象,为读者进行艺术再创造留下了空间。更突出主题

 

结尾段作用分析类例题摘抄或粘贴:

                                                                                   

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

(5)鉴赏五:人称(略讲)   

第一人称叙事具有很强的主观性和随意性,便于表现主观的情感意识与情绪变化;而且在叙述的转换上有极大的便利。 第一人称叙事的局限在于它是从一个人的叙事观点出发,视野受限制,客观性和准确性不足

采用第三人称全知视角可以从全方位引导读者了解、把握故事情节,便于展现广阔的生活背景、复杂的故事情节。第三人称叙事的局限是无法直接进入每个人物的内心世界,常借助动作、语言才能反映出来,而使叙事显得不够亲切、缺少感性。

 

(6)鉴赏六:语言鉴赏品味题解题思路

1.从语言的个性化角度赏析。

个性化的人物语言,能显示人物独特的性格,让人如闻其声、如临其境,如见其人。以语言分析人物性格。

2.从语言表达的丰富内涵角度赏析。

品味语言运用在简洁传神、细腻逼真、生动形象地描摹人物动作神态与内心世界,表现独特的物态特征等方面的魅力。

3.从语言风格角度赏析。

幽默风趣、典雅庄重、含蓄凝练、自然质朴等。

 

语言品味类例题摘抄或粘贴:

                                                                                   

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                   

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

小说阅读其他例题摘抄或粘贴:

                                                                                   

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                     

                                                                                         

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                         

                                                                                     

 

体会与反思

                                                                                   

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                   

                                                                                          

                                                                                    

                                                                                          

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